Geometric morphometrics provides invaluable information in the areas of physical anthropology and medical research. By comparing differences in 3D anatomic structures it can help quantify an evolutionary feature or relationship, determine an organisms ontogeny or help improve diagnostics and surgical planning among many other applications.
We get a lot of “how to” questions related to applying geometric morphometrics to research studies from customers using, Checkpoint. The following resources provide insight into this specialty - from understanding the theory behind it to breaking down the geometric methods of shape analysis.
- Geometric morphometrics: Ten years of progress following the ‘revolution’ – This article gives an overview of the theoretical framework of geometric morphometrics, as well as some easy to understand examples of analyses using two-dimensional data.
- Adams, D.C., Rohlf, F.J., & Slice, D.E. (2009). Italian Journal of Zoology, 71: 5-16.
- Form, Function and Geometric Morphometrics – A useful overview of the types of statistical analyses that can be done with geometric morphometric data. A 3D dataset example and additional files are given as part of the online supplementary material - a valuable resource for those attempting three-dimensional analyses.
- Cooke, S.B. & Terhune, C.E. (2015). The Anatomical Record, 298(1): 5-28.
- Differences between sliding semi-landmark methods in geometric morphometrics, with an application to human craniofacial and dental variation – An overview of what semilandmark sliding is, and how different methods of semilandmark sliding impacts final data results.
- Perez, S.I., Bernal, V. & Gonzalez, P.N. (2006). Journal of Anatomy, 208(6): 769-784.
- Semilandmarks in three dimensions – A more in-depth analysis of semilandmarks and how we can use and process them. Includes mathematical functions for the semilandmark sliding process.
- Gunz, P., Mitteroecker, P., & Bookstein, F.L. (2005). Modern Morphometrics in Physical Anthropology, 73-98. Retrieved from http://www.researchgate.net/publication/226696996_Semilandmarks_in_Three...
- Use of two-block partial least-square to study covariation in shape - A useful overview – including mathematical functions – for the use and implementation of a 2B-PLS analysis to study the ways that shape covaries with another variable (e.g. facial dimensions, or another aspect of shape).
- Rohlf, F.J., & Corti, M. (2001). Systematic Biology, 49(4): 740-753.
- Geometric Morphometrics for Biologists: A Primer – A user-friendly textbook that covers the use of geometric morphometrics (most examples are in two-dimensions).
- Zelditch, M.L., Swiderski, D.L., Sheets, D.H. (2004). Waltham, MA: Academic Press.
- Morphometric Tools for Landmark Data: Geometry and Biology – An essential textbook on geometric morphometrics that goes into a bit more mathematical detail than the previous “Primer” book does.
- Bookstein, F.L. (1991). Biometrical Journal, 35(4): 512.
- Quick Guide to GeoMorph v.2.0 – The geomorph package for R is a popular way to analyze landmark data. Emma Sherrat (one of the authors of the package) has written a user guide to help new users write programs in R for the analysis of two- and three-dimensional data.
- Sherrat E. (2014). Retrieved from http://www.public.iastate.edu/~dcadams/PDFPubs/Quick%20Guide%20to%20Geom...
We hope you find this list helpful and please feel free to post any other resources you have found in the comments below and we’ll add them to the list if relevant.
Some information contributed by Dr. Lissa Tallman.