This Week in 3D Imaging

Antonina Pevzner

Research Highlights 

  • Researchers from NVIDIA won 1st place on the HECKTOR22 challenge leaderboard- a platform for researchers to compare their solutions to segmentation of tumors and lymph nodes from 3D CT and PET images. They re-sampled all images to a common resolution, cropped  around head and neck region, and trained SegResNet semantic segmentation network from MONAI. They used 5-fold cross validation to select best model checkpoints.  An ensemble of 15 models from three runs made up the final submission. 

    Image of 1st place solution


  • In order to effectively capture the global multi-scale information and learn sequence representations of the input volume, researchers from NVIDIA introduced a novel architecture known as UNEt TRansformers (UNETR), which uses a transformer as the encoder and adheres to the successful "U-shaped" network design for the encoder and decoder. To calculate the final semantic segmentation output, the transformer encoder is directly connected to a decoder via skip connections at various resolutions. They used the Medical Segmentation Decathlon (MSD) dataset for brain tumor and spleen segmentation tasks as well as the Multi Atlas Labeling Beyond The Cranial Vault (BTCV) dataset for multi-organ segmentation to validate the performance of our method. 

    Diagram of Encoder/Decoder



Open Source Highlights 

  • Elon Musk recently hinted that Twitter encrypted DMs were on the way, using full end-to-end encryption – and code spotted in the iOS app suggests that it will use the same E2E encryption standard as Signal. Plans for E2E encryption of Twitter direct messages date back to at least 2018, and it appears that the company has resuscitated code written back then. There are two main types of encryption, which are used by nearly all private messaging services. The key used for standard encryption is kept by the message service. Because of this, any employee who had the requisite access can read any message. End-to-end (E2E) encryption is distinct because only the recipients of the message possess the encryption key. The content is far more secure because the messaging provider does not have access to it. Currently, Twitter DMs employ a less secure encryption method. 

    Elon Musk


  • The majority of modern apps, according to new study, are created using open source software (OSS), underscoring the significance of this technology once more. 90% of the Fortune 100 firms utilize open source software in some capacity, according to GitHub's Octoverse 2022 study, which contrasts with the conclusions of the company's 2012 research, which found that companies only used OSS to run their web servers. The 94 million users of the GitHub site have contributed 413 million OSS projects this year alone, the business reported.